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What Does the Bible Say About Dogs? - Biblical Archaeology Society
Putting the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus in context
Megan Sauter May 09, 2019 0 Comments 674 views
What does the Bible say about dogs? What roles did they play in the New Testament?
Justin David Strong explores dogs in the Bible and ancient world in his article “From Pets to Physicians: Dogs in the Biblical World,” published in the May/June 2019 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review. He shows how archaeological discoveries clarify the various roles dogs played in the Bible. In particular, understanding how dogs were viewed in the Greco-Roman world illuminates the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus from Luke 16:19–31.
What does the Bible say about dogs?
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Throughout the ancient Near East and Mediterranean, domesticated dogs served as companions, hunting dogs, sheep dogs, and guard dogs. Dogs filled similar roles in the Bible (e.g., Job 30:1; Isaiah 56:10–11). Although dogs sometimes appear in negative contexts in the Bible, such as in insults, they are not listed as ritually “unclean” animals. Strong clarifies that at least by the second century B.C.E., Jews viewed dogs positively:
In the Greco-Roman world, dogs frequently sat underneath tables and ate scraps of food that fell to the ground. The sixth-century B.C.E. Eurytios Krater depicts a scene with table dogs. Also in the New Testament, the Syro-phoenician woman talks about table dogs: “Yes, Lord, yet even the dogs eat the crumbs that fall from their masters’ table” (Matthew 15:27, NRSV).
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Some ancient Greeks and Romans built tombs or erected headstones with eloquent epitaphs for their deceased pets. These show that owners cherished their pets—with several inscriptions even describing the dogs as family members.
Dogs also filled the interesting role of physician in the Greco-Roman world. Strong explains how this developed:
In the role of physician of the animal kingdom, dogs appear in the cult of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine. Sacred dogs, living in the god’s temples, would lick visitors’ wounds. Their tongues reputedly soothed and healed.
This understanding of dogs as physicians proves important for the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus in Luke 16:19–31. The parable reads:
In the parable, dogs lick the wounds of Lazarus. Viewing the dogs as healers, we can see this was a benevolent action. Strong explains that this corrects a previous interpretation of the dogs as malevolent characters: “The function of the dogs licking Lazarus has traditionally been understood by scholars to be a signal of extreme misery. Lazarus must be so disabled that he cannot drive away these ‘unclean’ dogs who are making a meal of him, so the old interpretation goes. But, as we can see now, this act would have been perceived by a first-century audience as a sign of sympathy from the dogs, who have been caring after Lazarus as though his nurses.”
We also see from the parable that Lazarus wishes to eat the scraps from the rich man’s table—like a table dog. However, the rich man denies him even this.
Thus, the diverse roles of the dog as companion, table dog, guard dog, sheep dog, hunter, and physician inform our understanding of the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus. To learn more about dogs in the world of the New Testament, see Justin David Strong’s article “From Pets to Physicians: Dogs in the Biblical World” published in the May/June 2019 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.
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